2024 Acknowledgements

With this year’s issue, Past and Present more accurately reflects the diversity of disciplines represented in the department, by including the journal’s very first Intelligence Analysis paper. Moreover, as the department’s composition has shifted this year with the addition of our Philosophy colleagues, I look forward to future issues of Past and Present being further augmented. This year’s issue again showcases the editors’ creative vision as well as their editing acumen, and I take great pride in the student editors and all the departmental students whose work contributed to it. As always, this year’s Past and Present highlights the stellar scholarship produced by our students, in a publication unique at York College. I am indebted to all of my departmental faculty colleagues who have mentored students in the research projects that were submitted for consideration, whether or not the papers ultimately were accepted for publication; faculty devotion to nurturing students at every step of the research process has direct bearing on the quality of the final projects. I am also grateful to all of our department’s students for providing their scholarship, which serves as a foundation for the journal. I have been blessed to work with four outstanding student editors, all of whom have been an absolute joy to work with, and I deeply appreciate their unceasing hard work, devotion, and care with which they approached this endeavor. After difficult deliberations, the editors have selected seven exceptional manuscripts that reflect the broad research interests and high quality of scholarship of our department’s students, and have spent many hours reading and preparing the manuscripts for publication. Their vision for this year’s cover design, which they describe in their explanation, illustrates the range of student research. I know they join me in expressing sincere joy at unveiling the latest issue of Past and Present

-Ilana Krug, Past and Present faculty advisor

The Past and Present Journal is published annually by the Department of History and Political Science at York College of Pennsylvania.

Department of History and Political Science Faculty and Staff:

Corey Brooks, chair

Ilana Krug

Deb Staley, Administrative Assistant

Peter Levy, Emeritus

Julio Javier Aguayo

Xiaofei Li

John Altman

Kay McAdams

Nicholas Anspach

Sung-Wook Paik

Jacqueline Beatty

Jennifer Pomeroy

Paul Doutrich, Emeritus

Kwasi Sarfo

David Fyfe

Walter Stepanenko

Mary Graham, Emerita

Robert Terry, Emeritus

Greg Kaliss

John Weaver

Padraic Kennedy

Dennis Weiss

Rory Kraft

Copying by Rosanna Wood and Mildred Martin, York College Academic Printing Services

Binding services performed by Wolf Printing, York, PA